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KetoPower

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Description

Ketones:

MCT Medium Chain Triglycerides Fuel Weight Loss Supports Brain and Muscles

Clinical Applications
» Provides Carbohydrate-Free Fuel for Muscles and Brain*
» Helps Promote Ketosis*
» Supports Energy, Performance, and Focus*
KetoPower™ is a refreshing, cucumber-lime-flavored, easy-to-use
powdered drink mix featuring mineral salts of beta-hydroxybutyrate
(BHB) and medium-chain triglycerides. These ingredients provide direct
carbohydrate-free fuel for the brain and muscles to support energy,
performance, and focus.*

KetoPower™ Supplement Facts
Serving Size: 1 scoop (about 11.1 g)
Amount Per Serving %Daily Value
Calories 30
Total Fat 1.5 g 2%†
Saturated Fat 1.5 g 8%†
Total Carbohydrate 2 g 1%†
Dietary Fiber 2 g 7%
Calcium (as goBHB® calcium beta-hydroxybutyrate) 385 mg 30%
Magnesium (as goBHB® magnesium beta-hydroxybutyrate) 50 mg 12%
Sodium (as goBHB® sodium beta-hydroxybutyrate) 385 mg 17%
goBHB® Calcium Beta-Hydroxybutyrate 2.5 g **
goBHB® Sodium Beta-Hydroxybutyrate 2.25 g **
Medium-Chain Triglycerides 1.5 g **
goBHB® Magnesium Beta-Hydroxybutyrate 600 mg **

Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
** Daily Value not established.
Other Ingredients: Gum acacia, citric acid, malic acid, silica, natural flavors (no MSG), stevia leaf extract,
cellulose gum, xanthan gum, and sea salt.
DIRECTIONS: Dissolve the contents of one scoop (about 11.1 g) daily in 12-14
oz of water according to taste preference, or use as directed by your healthcare
practitioner. When in training: Take 30 minutes before a workout or in the morning
on non-training days.
Consult your healthcare practitioner prior to use. Individuals taking medication
should discuss potential interactions with their healthcare practitioner. Do not use
if tamper seal is damaged.
STORAGE: Keep closed in a cool, dry place out of reach of children.
DOES NOT CONTAIN: Wheat, gluten, yeast, soy protein, animal or dairy products,
fish, shellfish, peanuts, tree nut protein, egg, ingredients derived from genetically
modified organisms (GMOs), artificial colors, artificial sweeteners, or artificial
preservatives.

Discussion
Glucose is the primary source of energy in the body that fuels every function
from brain cognition to athletic performance. When dietary carbohydrates are
consumed, they are immediately metabolized into glucose or stored in the
body as glycogen, which is utilized when the body needs an energy source.
When glycogen stores have been depleted, the body naturally goes into a
ketogenic state. In this state, the liver uses fat stores to generate alternative
fuel byproducts called ketones. The presence of ketones in the blood is known
as ketosis.
Ketosis has been touted as desirable for multiple benefits, particularly for
energy production, performance, and focus. Ketosis can be induced by fasting,
by strictly limiting carbohydrate intake, by engaging in prolonged exercise
without carbohydrate intake, or by supplementing with an exogenous source
of ketones. The three primary types of ketone bodies formed in ketosis are
acetate, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). KetoPower™ provides an
exogenous source of ketones to promote a state of ketosis.*
GoBHB® (Beta-Hydroxybutyrate Salts)
Fuel/Energy Source
GoBHB is a patented and self-affirmed GRAS supplemental form of the BHB
ketone body bound to mineral salts. It provides an exogenous source of ketones
to help achieve ketosis without a ketogenic diet. When the body is in a natural
state of ketosis, BHB is the ketone body present in the blood at the highest
level;[1] it appears to be better for energy production on a cellular level, and it is
more stable than other naturally occurring ketones. Thus, most of the research
on exogenous ketones utilizes either BHB salts or BHB esters.*
The first human study suggesting that exogenous ketones could rapidly increase
the level of ketones in the blood was published in 2012. Healthy male and
female subjects (n = 54) had elevated plasma levels of BHB and acetoacetate
following the administration of a single dose of a ketone monoester delivered
at 140, 357, or 714 mg/kg body weight in a meal replacement drink. The same
three doses were administered three times daily over a five-day period to assess
safety and tolerance. BHB levels remained elevated, but some gastrointestinal
effects were reported and attributed to the large volumes of the milk-based
drink, not the BHB.*[2]
A variety of dietary strategies can be used to induce a ketogenic state; however,
restriction of carbohydrates is a necessity, and higher amounts of dietary fats
are typical. Some individuals may not tolerate a high fat intake and some may
consider it personally undesirable. Additionally, due to a limited list of allowable
foods, classic ketogenic diets may be difficult to adhere to over time. Exogenous
ketones are a potentially useful adjunct to a ketogenic diet or a practical
alternative to increasing circulating ketone body concentrations without having
to undergo a ketogenic diet to induce ketosis.*
Performance
It has been hypothesized that during exercise, ketones essentially function
as a “fourth” fuel source. They don’t necessarily provide an advantage over
carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, but they possibly preserve endogenous fuel.
Limiting the breakdown of carbohydrates for energy during exercise might
reduce fatigue and lactate accumulation,[3] two factors that are likely to affect
athletic performance. Ketosis as a performance enhancer was introduced in the
early 1980s with the idea that chronic ketosis without caloric restriction could
preserve submaximal exercise capability by sparing glycogen and conserving
limited carbohydrate stores. A recent review of this stated that few human
studies have yielded positive results and most yielded equivocal results.*[4]
In five separate studies (n = 39) of high-performance athletes, the effects
of exogenous ketone esters on induced ketosis for physical endurance were
studied. Ketosis decreased muscle glycolysis and plasma lactate concentrations
while providing an alternative fuel substrate. Ketosis also increased
intramuscular triacylglycerol oxidation during exercise, even in the presence of
normal muscle glycogen, co-ingested carbohydrate, and elevated insulin. These
findings suggest a positive effect of exogenous ketones for improvement of
performance.[5] However, other studies with varying testing protocols suggest
minimal or no effect on performance.[6,7] Further studies are needed to confirm
the positive effect of exogenous ketones on performance.*
Cognitive
The body of evidence supporting a ketogenic diet and/or exogenous
ketones as an effective nutrition intervention for cognitive impairment and
neurodegenerative issues continues to evolve with multiple animal studies,
some single case reports, and a few small human trials.*[8-11]
Although glucose is the predominant brain fuel, ketones are utilized when
glucose is not available. When an individual is fasting, strenuously exercising,
or on a ketogenic diet, the brain becomes receptive to ketone bodies as an
alternative fuel. This was demonstrated in a study in adult subjects (n = 4) in
whom ketones were shown to rapidly cross the blood-brain barrier and provide
brain neurons with energy.[12] This efficient utilization has been suggested to playa role in the improvement of memory, focus, and cognition when affected regions of
the brain lose capacity to harness sufficient energy from glucose.*[11,13,14]
Medium-Chain Triglycerides
KetoPower provides a patented medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) powder with a high
caprylic and capric acid content (C8/C10) that also contains acacia fiber, a prebiotic
that may promote gut health and help optimize the gut-brain axis. MCTs are easily
absorbed, permeate the mitochondria without the aid of enzymes, and provide
a quick energy source without impacting insulin levels. Unlike other dietary fats,
MCTs are not stored as body fat to any significant degree. The liver metabolizes the
MCTs into ketones, which can then be used as alternative energy sources for brain
cells if they are deprived of glucose.*
Both animal and human studies have explored the potential role of MCTs in
increasing ketones to support brain health. In a study of adults (n = 20) with
cognitive impairment who were given MCTs or placebo, significant increases in BHB
were observed 90 minutes post-treatment when recall tests were administered.[15]
In a 90-day, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study,
subjects (n = 152) with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease were given an oral
ketogenic MCT compound to determine if ketosis could affect cognitive performance.
Significantly elevated levels of BHB were seen two hours after administration when
compared to placebo. Correspondingly, elevated BHB levels resulted in significant
differences in Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADASCog) scores when compared to placebo.*[16]
Research on MCTs as fuel for exercise also continues to emerge. A study using
recreational athletes as subjects (n = 8) suggested that when consuming MCTs,
blood lactate levels and rate of perceived exertion during moderate-intensity
exercise were significantly reduced.*[17]
Another small study suggested that endurance-trained cyclists (n = 6) who consumed
MCTs during moderate-intensity exercise for two hours had significant improvements
in time-trial performances during subsequent high-intensity exercise.[18] Additional
research in larger trials is ongoing to further explore these effects.*
References
1. Cahill GF Jr. Fuel metabolism in starvation. Annu Rev Nutr. 2006;26:1-22.
Review. [PMID: 16848698]
2. Clarke K, Tchabanenko K, Pawlosky R, et al. Kinetics, safety and tolerability
of (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate in healthy adult subjects. Regul
Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012 Aug;63(3):401-8. [PMID: 22561291]
3. Egan B, D’Agostino DP. Fueling performance: ketones enter the mix. Cell Metab.
2016 Sep 13;24(3):373-375. [PMID: 27626197]
4. Scott JM, Deuster PA. Ketones and human performance. J Spec Oper Med.
Summer 2017;17(2):112-116. [PMID: 28599043]
5. Cox PJ, Kirk T, Ashmore T, et al. Nutritional ketosis alters fuel preference and
thereby endurance performance in athletes. Cell Metab. 2016 Aug 9;24(2):256-
68. [PMID: 27475046]
6. Leckey JJ, Ross ML, Quod M, et al. Ketone diester ingestion impairs time-trial
performance in professional cyclists. Front Physiol. 2017 Oct 23;8:806. [PMID:
29109686]
7. O’Malley T, Myette-Cote E, Durrer C, et al. Nutritional ketone salts increase fat
oxidation but impair high-intensity exercise performance in healthy adult males.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017 Oct;42(10):1031-1035. [PMID: 28750585]
8. Murray AJ, Knight NS, Cole MA, et al. Novel ketone diet enhances physical
and cognitive performance. FASEB J. 2016 Dec;30(12):4021-4032. [PMID:
27528626]
9. Roberts MN, Wallace MA, Tomilov AA, et al. A ketogenic diet extends longevity
and health span in adult mice. Cell Metab. 2018 May 1;27(5):1156. [PMID:
29719228]
10. Newport MT, VanItallie TB, Kashiwaya Y, et al. A new way to produce
hyperketonemia: use of ketone ester in a case of Alzheimer’s disease.
Alzheimers Dement. 2015 Jan;11(1):99-103. [PMID: 25301680]
11. Cunnane SC, Courchesne-Loyer A, Vandenberghe C, et al. Can ketones help
rescue brain fuel supply in later life? Implications for cognitive health during
aging and the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Front Mol Neurosci. 2016 Jul
8;9:53. [PMID: 27458340]
12. Pan JW, de Graaf RA, Petersen KF, et al. [2,4-13 C2 ]-beta-hydroxybutyrate
metabolism in human brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2002 Jul;22(7):890-8.
[PMID: 12142574]
13. Veech RL, Bradshaw PC, Clarke K, et al. Ketone bodies mimic the life span
extending properties of caloric restriction. IUBMB Life. 2017 May;69(5):305-
314. [PMID: 28371201]
14. Croteau E, Castellano CA, Fortier M, et al. A cross-sectional comparison of
brain glucose and ketone metabolism in cognitively healthy older adults, mild
cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer’s disease. Exp Gerontol. 2018 Jul
1;107:18-26. [PMID: 28709938]
15. Reger MA, Henderson ST, Hale C, et al. Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate on
cognition in memory-impaired adults. Neurobiol Aging. 2004 Mar;25(3):311-4.
[PMID: 15123336]
16. Henderson ST, Vogel JL, Barr LJ, et al. Study of the ketogenic agent AC-1202 in
mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled, multicenter trial. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2009 Aug 10;6:31. [PMID:
19664276]
17. Nosaka N, Suzuki Y, Nagatoishi A, et al. Effect of ingestion of medium-chain
triacylglycerols on moderate- and high-intensity exercise in recreational
athletes. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2009 Apr;55(2):120-5. [PMID: 19436137]
18. Van Zyl CG, Lambert EV, Hawley JA, et al. Effects of medium-chain triglyceride
ingestion on fuel metabolism and cycling performance. J Appl Physiol (1985).
1996 Jun;80(6):2217-25. [PMID: 8806933]